July 25, 2007

Replication is an extremely important technique in digital design. The basic idea is that under some circumstances it is useful to take the same logic cloud or the same flip-flops and produce more instances of them, even though only a single copy would normally be enough from a logical point of view.
Why would I want to spend more area on my chip and create more logic when I know I could do without it?

Imagine the situation on the picture below. The darkened flip-flop has to drive 3 other nets all over the chip and due to the physical placement of the capturing flops it can not be placed close by to all of them. The layout tool finds as a compromise some place in the middle, which in turn will generate a negative slack on all the paths.


We notice that in the above example the logic cloud just before the darkened flop has a positive slack or in other words, “some time to give”. We now use this and produce a copy of the darkened flop, but this time closer to each of the capturing flops.


Yet another option, is to duplicate the entire logic cloud plus the sending flop, as pictured below. This will usually generate even better results.


Notice that we also reduce the fan out of the driving flop, thus further improving on timing.

It is important to take care about while writing the HDL code, that the paths are really separated. This means when you want to replicate flops and logic clouds make sure you give the registers/signals/wires different names. It is a good idea to keep some sort of naming convention for replicated paths, so in the future when a change is made on one path, it would be easy enough to mirror that change on the other replications.

There is no need to mention that when using this technique we pay in area and power – but I will still mention it 🙂


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